- the Anhalt ministerialis, Eike von Repgow, has written the Sachsenspiegel, the first German law book (in German). The book is dedicated to its commissioner, Hoyer von Falkenstein.
- the poet Rudolf von Ems has written (in German) an interesting theological work, The Good Gerhart.
- Honorius III bans the teaching of Roman law at the University of Paris.
- Speaking of Universities, Papal Legate to France Conrad von Urach has formalized the medicine and law schools at Montpelier under the Bishop of Maguelonne; it’s not quite University status, but if they add a liberal arts school (and they might), it will become one.
- Construction has begun on a lower wall for Elmstein Castle in the Palatinate forest.
- April 15 – death of former Archbishop of Cologne Adolf of Altena (stopped being Archbishop in 1205)
- The Archbishopric of Mainz has taken possession of the town of Oberlahnstein and a silver mine. In order to protect these holdings, he’s considering building a castle.
- The priest and astrologer Michael Scot has returned to Palermo, where Frederick II is currently residing.
- Francis of Assisi has resigned the leadership of the mendicant order he founded.
- the mathematician Fibonacci has just published Practica Geometriae, a treatise on mathematics
- Frederick, King of Sicily, has been crowned Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. His imperial seat is currently in Palermo.
- The Estonians have defeated the Swedes at the battle of Lihula. The Swedes were attempting to join in the Baltic land-grab that the Danes and various Germanic orders militant (primarily the Teutonic knights, but also the Livonian Sword-Brothers, etc.) were engaging in to extirpate Baltic paganism and get some more land. But no, the Swedes got pretty well massacred.
- The Crusaders have abandoned Damietta; the latest crusade against the Egyptians has pretty much failed. Frederick II has promised the Pope another one, though.
- The Archbishop of Mainz will build a castle where the Lahn meets the Rhine, just south of Koblenz, to protect his silver mine.
- Canonization of St. Benedict of Nursia – the guy who the Benedictine Order is named after.
- New book available – Theoderich von Weid, Archbishop of Trier, finished his tractatus Liber annalium iurium. It’s basically a listing of the assets of the archbishopric
- The Archbishop of Cologne, under instructions from the Holy Roman Emperor, has taken the Monastery of St. Catherine in Dortmund under the Archbishop’s protection.
- Reconstruction of Amiens cathedral begins.
- Alfonso IX of Leon has founded a university at Salamanca.
- The Bishop of Brandenburg has died. No replacement has yet been named.
- Frederick II, as ruler of Sicily, has promulgated a law stating that it is okay to use violence against jesters who “defame and insult.”
- Pope Honorius III has given the Teutonic Knights the same privileges as Templars and Hospitallers.
- Henry succeeds his father as Margrave of Meissen.
- Gunzelin, Co-Count of Schwerin (not the official term, but there’s a power-sharing agreement) died earlier this year. His other Co-Count, his brother Henry, is in the Holy Land on crusade, so Danish King Valdemar II has basically just taken possession of Schwerin, saying he’ll (and I’m paraphrasing) “hold onto it for safekeeping,” but since Valdemar II also just named his nephew “governor,” I’m thinking he’s not planning to give Schwerin back to Henry.
- Robert of Courtenay crowned Latin Emperor (that is, the guy in control of Constantinople and the lands around that aren’t the Nicaean Empire or the Despotate of Epirus) March 25.
- The Duke of Bavaria, the Margrave of Baden-Baden, and the leadership of the Teutonic knights are off to crusade in the Holy Land; they set out for Damietta in Egypt in April.
- Ludwig IV, Landgrave of Thuringia, is marrying Elizabeth of Hungary in the early fall. Since it’s 1221, and apparently this marriage was arranged by George RR Martin, no one thinks it’s creepy that he’s 21 and she’s 14.
- Ludolf von Schanebeck and Wichmann von Arnstein are both claiming title to the Bishopric of Brandenburg. You’d think the Pope would sort this out.
- Lubeck’s castle, cathedral, and city now are all protected by a city wall.
- Ludwig IV married to jailbait Elizabeth of Hungary, who is not only too young, but according to reports, irritatingly pious.
- Gunzelin of Wolfenbüttel, Emperor Frederick II’s steward in Tuscany, has gotten in trouble by claiming lands in the March of Ancona and the Duchy of Spoleto for the Empire. Why is this a problem? Because those areas are/border the Papal States, depending on whom you ask, and ownership by someone not absolutely sworn to the Pope will lead to trouble with the Pope.
- John of Brienne, “King of Jerusalem” (by marriage, and Jerusalem is currently under Muslim control), has granted the County of Jaffa and Askelon to his sixteen-year-old nephew, Walter (later Count Walter IV of Brienne). This is one of the highest ranks you can get in the Kingdom of Jerusalem (such as it is); it’s roughly equivalent to a Prince-Elector of the Empire.
- Frederick II has opened a new university at Padua.
- Dominic, founder of the monastic order that bears his name, died in early August. It is unlikely that the order will fail without Dominic; his order is already setting up facilities in Oxford, based on instructions given by Dominic in the weeks before his death.
- Conrad von Urach has a change in assignment; formerly Papal Legate to France to deal with the Albigensians, he’s now Papal Legate to Germany to promote the crusade Frederick II promised to undertake.
- Friars under the rule of St. Francis are holding a conclave in Augsberg in October.
- In August the crusaders suffered a defeat at the battle of Mansurah; Muslims now hold as hostages Herman V, Margrave of Baden-Baden, the Teutonic Grand Master Hermann von Salza, and the Teutonic Master of the Temple. The papal legate responsible for the crusade (Conrad von Urach) is blaming Frederick II for not arriving quickly enough to reinforce the Crusader forces; he was supposed to leave in August 1221, but the Pope gave the emperor an extension.
- Frederick II to crown his son Henry as King of the Germans in May. Coronation will take place in Aachen.
- the Pope recalled Pandulf Masca, papal legate to England, for failing to get more obedience out of the English bishops.
- Death of Kuno, Prince-Abbot of Fulda. Konrad von Malkes is the new Prince-Abbot.
- King of Castile had a male heir, Alfonso, born in November.
- Henry, technically Count of Schwerin, has returned from crusading in the Holy Land to find King of Denmark Valdemar II occupying his lands. He’s currently in talks to end that; we’ll see how that goes.
- Count William I of Holland (William “the Crazy,” known for reckless bravery during the crusades and his efforts in conquering Damietta in 1218-1219) died. Floris IV, his eldest son, now Count of Holland.
- The Pope has recently named April 23 St. George’s day, after the saint that killed the dragon.
- Controversy over Bishopric of Brandenburg sorted out; some guy named Gernot is the new Bishop.
- May 8 – Coronation of Henry VII as king of the Germans
- A boy was born to Ludwig IV of Thuringia and his wife Elizabeth – Hermann. There is now an heir to the Landgraviate of Thuringia. We once again will not comment about how Elizabeth of Hungary was totally teen pregnant (she’s now 15 years old) and this was cool in 1222, nor on how crappy a name “Hermann” is.
- John I of Sweden is dead. Eric XI (“the lisp” or “the lame,” depending on how you like to demean, or both – “the lisp and lame”) becomes King of Sweden. Looks like the Battle of Lihula was the start of a losing streak for Sweden, huh?
- Henry, Count of Schwerin, is not a guy who you screw with. In early May of this year, he up and kidnapped King Valdemar II and his kid (also named Valdemar, usually called “the younger”) from a hunting estate on a Danish island.
- A canon of Holy Trinity in London has compiled a history of the Third Crusade, Itinerarium Regis Ricardi.
- Conrad of Marburg begins investigation into potential demonic worship in Goslar
- King Andrew II of Hungary forced to promulgate a Golden Bull, placing limits on his power.
- Beginning of trial for heresy and demon-worship of Heinrich Minnike, provost of Goslar, under accusation by Conrad of Marburg.
- Emperor Frederick II grants Prüm Abbey the status of a Prince-Abbacy of the Empire. Frederick of Fels is now a Prince-Abbott.
- Sept. 28 – visible comet according to some English sources, which also report that the comet was accompanied by dragons.
- Oct. 6 – solar eclipse visible in Baltic states
- Vladislaus III, last Duke of Bohemia died August 12. Ottokar I has proclaimed himself King of Bohemia.
- The town of Werneck (in Bavaria) has been granted as an individual fief by Bodo of Ravensburg; the Pope confirmed it back in April. Currently the fief is shared between the Knights Teutonic and Conrad of Ravensburg.
- The famed troubador Elias Cairel has died in Romania. During his lifetime, he traveled with the Fourth Crusade and sang in Thessalonica, Leon, and Lombardy.
- Thomas Oliver, priest of the Archbishopric of Cologne and builder of some impressive siege engines during the 1218/1219 crusader attack on Damietta, is back in the area. He’s now preaching for an additional crusade, which is likely, since Frederick II promised the Pope.
- (according to a book by Caesarius of Heisterbach) On All Hallow’s Eve, a tournament of ghostly knights was seen on the banks of the Moselle; dead participants include Count Louis de Lootz, Thierry Heiger and Henry of Limbach. No one is sure what this means.
- December – very notable earthquake around Christmastime in Italy. Epicenter likely Brescia.
- John Ducas Vatatzes now Nicaean emperor; that is, he’s emperor of the part of the former Byzantine Empire that isn’t the Latin Empire. He probably wants Constantinople back.
- Premysl Ottokar I, the new King of Bohemia, has reunited Bohemia and Moravia.
- King Henry VII of Germany plans to travel to the northern part of his territory.
- Pope Honorius III offers Michael Scot, the Court Astrologer for Frederick II, the Archbishopric of Cashel in Ireland; Michael Scot declines as (at least this is the official excuse) he doesn’t speak Gaelic, despite the “Scot” part of his name being about his Scottish ancestry.
- Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Hermann von Salza returned to Rome in November, having been successfully ransomed.
- Michael Scot, apart from declining archbishoprics, has finished his translation of Averroes’s commentary on Aristotle’s De Caelo
- Caesarius of Heisterbach, a noted monk and chronicler of miracles, has finished his latest work, Dialogus magnus visionum atque miraculorum
- Thomas Oliver, the famous crusader cleric (you might remember him from taking care of the harbor chain at Damietta in 1219), has been selected to succeed Bernhard III as Bishop of Paderborn.
- In March Henry of Saxony executed a deed appointing his nephew Otto I (“the child”) his successor in all remaining of Henry’s domains of the Duchies of Saxony and Bavaria, and also in the private fiefs which he held individually in other parts of the empire. Obviously this puts Otto I on the edge of conflict of some powerful people.
- Alfonso II, King of Portugal, has died. Sancho II is now king.
- Raymond Roger, Count of Foix, died while besieging the Cathars at Mirepoix.
- King Henry VII of Germany is currently in Dortmund, along with the Archbishop of Cologne and a retinue of noblemen.
- Heinrich of Brakel is contesting Oliver’s claim to the Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn.
- The Nicean Emperor has selected a new Eastern Patriarch of Constantinople: Germanus II. Obviously the Patriarch isn’t getting anywhere near Constantinople if the Latin Emperor has anything to say about it.
- Vincent Kadlubek, bishop of Krakow, has died.
- Helinand of Froidmont, a Cistertian monk, has completed his Chronicon, a chronicle of world history in Latin. It is forty-nine books.
- Pope Honorious III is taxing French clergy to pay for the Albigensian Crusade.
- Templar Grand Master Hermann von Salza is mediating the dispute between the Pope and Frederick II over the actions of the Emperor’s Tuscan steward Gunzelin of Wolfenbüttel. If you don’t remember this from 1221, Gunzelin’s been a little sloppy with respecting the Pope’s interests in the lands bordering the Papal States.
- The king of France, Philip II, died in July. Louis VIII now king of France.
- On 10 August, 1223, the Mercedarian Order was legally constituted at Barcelona by King James of Aragon; they formed to fight against the Albigenses in 1218.
- Johan Sverkersson, King of Sweden, dies in March. Erik Eriksson elected new King of Sweden.
- Sicilian forces attempted to reconquer the island of Djerba from Muslim rule; they were repulsed.
- Conrad of Marburg is now officially confessor to Elizabeth (“MTV’s Teen Mom”) of Hungary.
- The Archbishop of Cologne is continuing his campaign against the abuse of clerical lands by the secular authorities, but he has run into conflict with the Bishop of Paderborn, the famous crusader Oliver, who is accused, despite having been in power only since the end of March (and not even uncontested power!), of over-taxing lands for his own gain.
- The Benedictine Abbott and chronicler Otto of Sankt Blaisen died late last month. His chronicles, written in the form of annals, Ad librum VII chronici Ottonis Frisingensis episcopi continuatae historiae appendix sive Continuatio Sanblasiana, embrace the period from 1146 to 1209, the period from Conrad III to the murder of Philip of Swabia, and are well-known for their thoroughness and objectivity.
- Pagans from the island of Saaremaa revolt against new Christian leaders, recapturing much of Estonia. Now maybe the Swedes don’t feel so bad.
- The Pope has been successfully reconciled with Frederick II over his steward Gunzelin’s actions.
- Archbishop Gebhard of Bremen reconciles the Hamburg chapter of the Archbishopric (there was a split between due to the connection of several bishops with internal Danish politics) and confirmed that three of its capitulars were enfranchised to elect with the Bremen chapter, to wit, the provost, presiding the chapter, the dean (Domdechant) and the scholaster, in charge of the education at the cathedral school.
- The Archbishop of Cologne has prevailed in his power struggle with Bishop Oliver of Paderborn.
- Report that “blood-colored earth” fell like rain upon Rome for three days.
- Francis of Assisi for Christmas 1223 set up a manger scene in Greccio (with a live baby) so pilgrims wouldn’t have to risk going to the Holy Land.
- The King of Castile announced in February his intention to renew the Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula.
- Battle of Poimanenon; pretenders to the Nicaean throne supported by the Latin Emperor trounced by Nicaean forces supporting John Ducas Vatatzes.
- In other Asia Minor news, the Despotate of Epirus has captured Thessalonica.
- The Pope has approved the revised rule of Francis and of the Friars Minor.
- Bishop Adolf von Tecklenburg of Osnabruck is failing. Englebert von Isenberg, cousin to the Englebert who is Archbishop of Cologne and brother to the Count of Isenberg, is likely to succeed.
- Heinrich of Brakel has received official sanction as Bishop of Paderborn from King Henry VII, who provided official regalia, and the Archbishop of Mainz, who confirmed the appointment. Current Bishop Oliver of Paderborn has appealed to the Pope.
- Provincial synod to be held in Trier in May.
- On March 20, the Thuringian throne had its second child – a daughter, Sophie. Elizabeth of Hungary is seventeen now. Ludwig is older, but we knew that.
- The last Arabs were expelled from Sicily. Yay ethnic cleansing!
- In May, the King of France declared war on the King of England.
- Konrad von Scharfenberg, Bishop of Metz, died in April.
- An Imperial Abbey has been founded at Rottweil.
- Honorious III is trying to convince Count Henry of Schwerin to release the King of Denmark, who Henry is still holding hostage. Since Henry doesn’t have his ancestral lands back from Danish control, this is still kind of a long shot. Nonetheless, the Pope has dispatched Hermann von Salza, grand master of the Teutonic Knights, to mediate.
- Frederick II has promulgated a law establishing that when the Church finds someone guilty of heresy, the secular authorities can execute them by burning.
- Troubador and lyric poet Walther von der Vogelweide has settled down (he’s 54) in Wurzburg.
- Frederick II has promulgated a jurisdictional document for civil law, the Landfreide, which specifies which crimes local lords have jurisdiction over, and what punishments they are to inflict. The landfrieden tend to be more formalities of letting the local lords do what they want than real law-making, but you never know with Frederick II.
- Louis VIII, King of France, forced Amaury VI of Montfort to give up the fortress at Carcassonne, which Amaury’s father captured from a Cathar lord during the Albigensian crusade.
- Albrecht, the Count of Orlamunde, in charge of Denmark since the Count of Schwerin has the Danish King and Valdemar, Jr. in captivity, has signed the Treaty of Dannenberg with the Count of Schwerin in order to release the King. It gives Schwerin back, along with 40,000 pounds of silver.
- Trial of Heinrich Minneke by Conrad of Marburg.
- Osnabrück raised to Prince-Bishopric. Englebert von Isenberg (cousin to the Archbishop of Cologne) has officially been named Prince-Bishop.
- Christina the Astonishing, the Belgian holy woman and ascetic known for her violent fits, almost dying and seeing heaven as a youth, regularly throwing herself into hot ovens and cold rivers, in July finally died of natural causes at age 74. The Pope is mulling canonization.
- Francis of Assisi is at La Verna, on the top of the mountain, fasting and praying in advance of Michaelmas. It is unclear what will happen with Francis’s order as the monk becomes less and less involved in the day-to-day running; the Pope has already had problems dealing with the politics of the Friars Minor.
- Frederick II has founded a new university in Naples.
- Trier has a diocesan synod in October.
- The Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquer the Latgallians and take the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. Go Livonians! It’s your birthday! You going to conquer Estonia like it’s your birthday!
- Treaty signed in September between Albigensian Crusaders and southern French nobles whose land the crusaders are not successfully taking (or keeping).
- Conviction of Heinrich Minnike, provost of Goslar, on heresy charges; condemned to release to the secular arm (and therefore execution, probably by burning, since Frederick II said that’s OK).
- In August or September, Francis of Assisi, while staying at Verna, had a vision and received the physical wounds of Christ.
- Teutonic Knights petitioned the Pope to be directly under his command, not subject to King Andrew II of Hungary. Evidently the Teutonic Knights have worn out their welcome in Hungary.
- Trier holds a diocesan synod February 22.
- The Hungarian king has begun expelling the Teutonic Knights from his territory.
- Adolf III, Count of Holstein, has died. His son, Adolf IV, is now count.
- The Danish king, FYI, is still a captive of Count Henry of Schwerin and the Danish king’s vassals were still fighting Schwerin, et al. despite the Treaty of Dannenberg. The princes of Mecklenburg have teamed up with Adolfus, Count of Schaumberg, in order to war against the Danish king for control of Holstein. The Danes just lost big in January at the Battle of Mölln. Count Albrecht of Orlamunde has now ALSO been captured by the Count of Schwerin and his allies.
- Count Raymond of Toulouse declared a heretic, excommunicated. Guess the Albigensian Crusade is still on.
- Bishop of Munster Dieterich III of Isenberg has laid the foundation stone for the renovations to Munster Cathedral.
- Poet Rudolf von Ems has written (in German) another religious poem, Barlaam and Josephat, about the conversion of a distant prince to Christianity.
- Mathematician to Frederick II Fibonacci has published a short treatise entitled The Book of Squares
- King Henry III of England, having reached the age of majority, has reconfirmed the English Magna Carta of 1215 and made it officially part of English law.
- Henry, Count of Schwerin, has retaken Schwerin Castle, which he was supposed to have owned for a while, and he still had to fight for despite having the King of Denmark who took it from him, and his son, as prisoners for the last two years.
- Count Otto of Neunahr has begun construction of a castle in the Ahr valley in the Palatinate.
- Synod of Mainz has concluded; Conrad of Marburg (yes! The confessor to the Thuringian landgravine and persecutor of the Provost of Goslar!) has been entrusted with the authority of ensuring that all the priests within the jurisdiction are following the synod’s doctrinal dictates. There are also some convents he needs to sort out.
- Pope confirms Oliver is Bishop of Paderborn, but to avoid further controversy, Oliver of Paderborn is now Cardinal Oliver, and will be going to Rome. Wilbrand von Oldenberg has been named new Bishop of Paderborn.
- Regardless of the issues with the King of Hungary, the Teutonic Knights may have a new base to work from; Conrad of Mazovia, a Polish nobleman, just asked for the Knights’ assistance to crusade against pagan Prussians.
- In January the Pope wrote a letter to recent converts in Prussian lands, guaranteeing that they will not be molested by crusaders.
- Construction begun on Münster Cathedral.
- Francis of Assisi has written a short prayer called “Canticle to Brother Sun.”
- the Count Palatine (Duke Louis I of Bavaria) has acquired the city of Heidelberg, and plans to move his seat of power there.
- the Franciscans have set up a cloister in the city of Lubeck.
- Also in Franciscan news, Jordanus of Giano was named head of the Franciscans at Mainz and custos of the Franciscan houses in Thuringia.
- The Archbishop of Cologne will be traveling to Soest, a large town in his bishopric, at the end of the October, in order to negotiate with his cousin, Count Frederick of Isenberg, over the control of Essen Abbey.
- Over a hundred French bishops are gathering next month in Bourges to discuss issues regarding the Albigensian heresies.
- Nov. 7 – Engelbert II of Berg, Archbishop of Cologne dies after an attack by Frederick of Isenberg after a judicial hearing where the Archbishop tried to prevent the absorption of nuns’ assets by Count Frederick (his cousin) and other nobles. He was said to have forty-seven stab wounds.
- Nov. 15 – Heinrich von Mullenark elected new Archbishop of Cologne. Bounty of 2,000 silver marks placed on head of Frederick, Count of Isenberg.
- The palace at Schloss Burg was completed.
- Marie of Swabia, wife of the Duke of Brabant, just had a second child: Beatrix.
- Denmark has granted several trading rights to the merchants of Lubeck.
- Treaty of Bardowick signed in November; Count Henry of Schwerin officially at peace with Denmark, releases King Valdemar II in return for 45000 silver marks, a release of Danish claims on Schwerin and Holstein, renunciation of Danish overlordship over all German territories except the Principality of Rügen, granting the German cities complete freedom of trade, Valdemar II will renounce his right of revenge, and Valdemar II will provide three of his sons as hostages.
- Frederick II married fourteen-year-old Isabella (Yolande) of Brienne November 9 and claimed the throne of Jerusalem, because, even though Muslims hold Jerusalem, Yolande is Queen of Jerusalem, because her mother was Queen of Jerusalem.
- Also in November’s House of Hohenstaufen news, King of the Germans Henry VII married Margaret of Austria, a cougar seven years older than he, in a reverse of what happened in Thuringia (and with Henry’s dad just now). Margaret is 21.
- the new Archbishop of Cologne, Heinrich von Müllenark, besieged and destroyed the castle of Frederick of Isenberg.
- Flood and plague in Thuringia. Agriculture imperiled.
- Burial on February 24 of late Archbishop of Cologne Engelbert II; declared a martyr by the Papal Legate Conrad von Urach.
- Imperial Diet to meet over Easter in Cremona (Lombardy).
- The Archbishop of Mainz is building Lahneck Castle in Lahnstein (on the Rhine) to protect his holdings. Being a castle, construction should be finished pretty quickly, unlike cathedrals.
- King Henry VII has enfeoffed the Bishopric of Dorpat in the Livonian (Baltic) territories.
- The Papal Legate has called the Bishops of Munster and Osnabruck, both relatives of Frederick of Isenberg and the late Archbishop Englebert of Berg, to Rome for questioning regarding their possible participation in events leading to the death of the Archbishop of Cologne.
- Landgrave Ludwig of Thuringia has delegated his power to appoint ecclesiastical offices to Conrad of Marburg.
- Pope Gregory IX has deposed the Benedictine abbot of Lorsch Abbey.
- Frederick, Count of Isenberg captured in Liege. Later sold to Cologne for 2100 silver marks.
- Holy Roman Emperor’s goals, as stated at the 1226 Imperial Diet in Cremona, is for the prosecution of a Crusade, suppression of heresy, and for recognition of his imperial rights. Those last two don’t sit well with the nobles who live in and around Cremona, and the Lombard League, which defeated Frederick II’s father’s efforts to subdue northern Italy, is reactivated and the Diet is dissolved without anything actually being decided.
- In March, Frederick II issued some proclamations regarding orders militant in the Baltic states:
- the “Golden Bull of Rimini” for the Teutonic Knights, giving them wide-ranging authority in the name of the empire in Prussia and authorized the Teutonic Knights to conquer and convert pagan Prussian tribes in the Baltics.
- Confirmed that the Swordbrothers control the parts of the Baltic states that they already own.
- Lubeck declared a Free Imperial City. The citizens are already in the process of tearing down the castle.
- Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III
- MTV’s teen mom Elizabeth of Hungary opened up the granary for the starving of Thuringia, until local nobility made her stop, fearing for the continued food supply of the nobility.
- In June, there was a renewed call for a crusade against the Cathars in southern France.
- The king of France, Louis VIII, launches a large southward offensive against the Albigensians and the count of Toulouse, because there’s been a crusade called.
- Lahneck Castle, at the confluence of the Lahn and Rhine rivers (just south of Koblenz) completed. The Archbishop of Mainz can consider his silver mine protected.
- Francis of Assisi has sent Elizabeth of Hungary, Landgravine of Thuringia, a personal blessing for her efforts on behalf of the members of his order.
- Papal Legate to Germany Conrad of Urach returned to Rome to smooth things over between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Lombard League.
- The Bishop of Munster died on his return from Rome (from natural causes, apparently). The Bishop of Osnabruck has been relieved of his position. Wilbrand von Oldenberg, Bishop of Paderborn, has been given temporary governance of the Bishoprics.
- Ezzelino II da Romano named podesta of Verona.
- Frederick of Isenberg executed by breaking on the wheel 14 November 1226.
- In November, Louis VIII died. Louis IX (age 12) became King of France; Blanche of Castile is regent.
- Francis of Assisi died October 3.
- Pandulph Masca, former papal legate to England, died in Rome in September.
- Battle of Muhu in January. Livonian Swordbrothers crossed an iced-over river and successfully besiege an Estonian city.
- The abbot of Hayna, the provost of St. Stephen, Mainz, and Conrad of Marburg were appointed as papal commissioners for the separation of Marburg from the parish of Oberweimar.
- Henry of Latvia has completed his Livonian Chronicle
- Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine, died April 28. Otto I inherits and has a claim on the Duchy of Saxony.
- King Henry III of England has declared himself of age and sole ruler.
- Theodore, Despot of Epirus, has crowned himself Byzantine Emperor. Neither the Latin nor Nicaean Emperor is likely to take this claim seriously.
- Frederick II is gathering his armies for the planned crusade.
- Pope Honorious III died March 18. Gregory IX named Pope the next day.
- The Archbishop of Trier is planning to build a Church of Our Lady on the site of the old Roman church in Trier. He is asking for donations.
- Cardinal Oliver of Paderborn, a veteran crusader, has joined Frederick II’s crusader forces as papal legate.
- On July 22, the Battle of Bornhoved. Danish armies led by King Valdemar II defeated by Count Adolf IV of Schauenburg and Holstein, leading an army consisting of troops from the cities of Lübeck and Hamburg, about 1000 Dithmarsians and combined troops of Holstein as well as to various north German nobles. Valdemar II loses an eye, but lives; Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Bishop of Ribe were taken prisoners. Danish border moved to the Eider river.
- England has declared a truce with France.
- Frederick II set sail for the Holy Land to fulfill his crusade, but illness stalks his fleet. The Emperor himself claimed illness and returned to Italy.
- Drenthes (residents of a Dutch town) defeat forces under the Bishop of Utrecht at the Battle of Ane.
- The house of Rapperswil founds the Wettingen monastery (near Baden) .
- Pope Gregory IX commissions Conrad of Marburg to eliminate heresy throughout the whole of Germany, granting him permission to ignore standard church procedure for the investigation of heresy. Because giving Conrad of Marburg the authority to ignore the rules only makes things better. More details below!
- In less disturbing Papal news, the four classes of members – brothers, knights, clerics and donors – of the Brothers of Saint Lazarus in Jerusalem were acknowledged by Pope Gregory IX in a Bull of 1227.
- The plague that afflicts the crusader fleet has claimed Cardinal Oliver of Paderborn.
- Bishop of Utrecht killed by Drenthes who were supposed to be his subjects.
- Caesarius of Heisterbach has completed the first volume of Actus, pasio et miracula domini Engelberte, on the life of the murdered Archbishop of Cologne
- In September, Ludwig IV of Thuringia died in Italy on way to crusade. Heinrich Raspe of Thuringia assumed the regency for the minority of Elizabeth’s eldest (but still four-year-old) child, Landgrave Hermann II of Thuringia. The death of her husband leaves Elizabeth a very pregnant widow; in October, a daughter Gertrude is born to Elizabeth of Hungary and the (dead) Ludwig IV of Thuringia. For the record, Elizabeth is still in her teens, widowed, and has three kids. Good thing she’s a landgravine, because otherwise she’d be screwed.
- As of September 29, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II is excommunicated. Gregory IX wanted a little faster progress on this “crusade against the Muslims” thing, not “get sick and come back home.”
- Leszek I, Duke of Poland, assassinated November 24 at a conclave of Polish nobility.
- Now that Otto, Duke of Brunswick, is a captive of the Duke of Saxony (on behalf of the Count of Schwerin, who was protecting his land from the Danish and their allies, including Otto), Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II has instructed his son, King Henry VII of Germany, to march with a significant force to capture the Duchy of Brunswick for the House of Hohenstaufen.
- In celebration of their victory at Bornhoved, the citizens of Lubeck are building a monastery on the site of the old castle for the Dominican Order.
- Conrad von Urach, former Papal Legate to Germany, died in Rome in September.
- Wilbrand von Oldenberg, current Bishop of Paderborn, is being transferred to the Bishopric of Utrecht to replace the one the Drenthes killed.
- Ludwig IV of Thuringia buried in in Reinhardsbrunn Abbey. His widow, Elizabeth of Hungary, leaves Wartburg Castle for the convent at Marburg.
- Henry VII’s expeditionary force towards Brunswick returns in failure; the city had already prepared a defense, and Danish King Valdemar II had an army enroute to cut off the Germans. The German king and his retainers retreated.
- Last December, Pope Gregory IX asked Audacia, widow of Count Henry of Schwerin, to release the remaining hostage sons of King Valdemar II of Denmark. They’re still captive.
- Essen Abbey raised to a Princess-Abbacy
- On February 1228, Count of Schwerin dies; orders on his death bed to release Otto I, Duke of Brunswick, who’s been held captive since the Battle of Bornhoved in July 1227; Otto’s captor, the Duke of Saxony, only agrees to do so when allowed to take possession of the Castle of Hardsacre and other states as security for the payment of Otto I’s ransom.
- On April 25, Yolanda, Queen of Jerusalem, gave birth to Conrad, son of Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. The delivery was hard on the sixteen-year-old and she died May 1. This means that the Holy Roman Emperor is officially King of Jerusalem, not that Jerusalem is currently in crusader hands.
- Robert of Courtenay, Latin Emperor, died earlier this year. Eleven-year-old Baldwin II is now emperor of the Latin Empire in Constantinople, with John of Brienne (the guy who married his daughter, who was Queen of Jerusalem, to Frederick II) as regent.
- Konrad I of Masovia, the Polish nobleman heading the Order of Dobrzyń (founded 1218) is preparing for another Prussian crusade. Pope Gregory IX granted the Order the town of Dobrzyń to use as a base.
- Last March, a Ghibelline mob, incited by the public reading of the excommunication of Frederick II, forced the Pope to flee Rome and take refuge in Perugia.
- Elizabeth of Hungary, former Landgravine of Thuringia, has sworn nun-like vows to Conrad of Marburg, her spiritual director. Her family are not thrilled that she has taken a vow of celibacy as they were hoping she’d remarry. They’re also not that thrilled with the DaVinci Code-style scourging that Conrad is making her do.
- Caesarius of Heisterbach has been made prior of his monastery in Heisterbach.
- Speaking of, Caesarius of Heisterbach has completed the second volume of Actus, pasio et miracula domini Engelberte, on the life of the murdered Archbishop of Cologne
- Otto I, Duke of Brunswick, in September returned from his captivity (in Saxony, after losing a battle to the late Count of Schwerin). He then married Mathilda, daughter of the Margrave of Brandenburg.
- Stefan Nemanjić, Grand Prince and later King of Serbia, died in September. His son, Stefan Radoslav (or King Radoslav for short) succeeds.
- Frederick II sailed for Syria in September to begin the crusade he was excommunicated for not undertaking. Walther von der Vogelweide, lyric poet of love and occasionally German nationalism (he’s been around since the 1190’s, and has consistently sided with Germany over Papal rule), has written a song in support called the Palestiniad.
- Pope Gregory IX, still in Perugia, excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II again for going on crusade while already excommunicated.
- the Duke of Spoleto, the Holy Roman Emperor’s regent in Italy, launched an attack on the Papal States.
- Christmas, King Henry VII of Germany forced Duke Louis of Bavaria to release his regency; Henry now rules Germany (to the extent that the King of Germany rules Germany) by himself.
- Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II is in Cyprus, and has used his muscle to ensure his son Conrad is King of Jerusalem, which has royally ticked-off the Lord of Beirut and a lot of the old crusader guard.
- Cardinal Otto of San Nicolo sent by Pope Gregory IX to Germany to publish the Emperor’s excommunication.
- The University of Toulouse is founded in France.
- Reapproval of Carmelite order by Gregory IX.
- Elizabeth of Hungary held sort of hostage by her uncle, Bishop Ekhart of Bamberg, in the hopes that she’ll give up this celibacy thing.
- Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II is in the Holy Land. In February, he negotiated a treaty with Egyptian Sultan al-Kamil for Jerusalem, and in March, Frederick II was officially crowned King of Jerusalem (technically, as regent for his one-year-old son Conrad, whose mother was the late Queen of Jerusalem) in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
- An army raised by John of Brienne on behalf of Pope Gregory IX has invaded southern Italy in retaliation for the Duke of Spoleto’s aggression.
- The city of Rapperswil established by Count Rudolf II of Rapperswil; his castle in N. Switzerland is finished; his family moves across the lake from Altendorf.
- Peace of Paris in April ends latest Albigensian Crusade – Count Raymond VII of Languedoc surrenders.
- Also in April, Alfonso IX of Leon recaptures Caceres for Christendom.
- King Henry VII of Germany, the Emperor’s son, has prevented Cardinal Otto from calling any synods to publish the Pope’s excommunication of the Emperor. Of German bishops, only Berthold of Strasburg has published the Pope’s bull of excommunication.
- In March, riots at the University of Paris prior to Lent. University suspends classes due to excessive secular response (technically illegal as students are “clergy”).
- Amaury VI of Montfort, former holder of Carcassonne, named Constable of France, an office previously held by his uncle Mathieu II of Montmorency.
- King Valdemar II paid 7,000 silver marks to the County of Schwerin for the release of the three sons they’d been holding as hostages since the 1225 Treaty of Bardowick.
- John of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut, regained control of Cyprus in July from forces loyal to the Holy Roman Emperor.
- Frederick II has returned to Italy, where I’m sure he’s about to notice his possessions are under attack by John of Brienne.
- Hermann Balk, provincial master of the Teutonic Knights negotiated the Treaty of Kruszwica with Duke Conrad of Prussia, by which the Teutonic Knights would control Culmerland/Chelmnoland (it’s on the Polish/Prussian border) and future conquests instead of them passing to the Masovian duke or Bishop Christian of Oliva.
- Teutonic Knights have a new fortress in the Galilee at Montfort.
- Francis of Assisi canonized July 16.
- Fearing confused responses to reading the Bible, church leaders at Toulouse forbid common people to read it. Remember, there’s been some heresy in the south of France; the Albigensian Crusades just ended earlier this year.
- Speaking of heresy, more Waldensians have been discovered in Strasbourg.
- Pope Gregory IX assigned the responsibility for future inquisitions of heretics to the Dominican Order.
- Dominicans take possession of their newly-built monastery, the Burgkloster, in Lubeck.
- Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II has been very successful at defeating armies allied to the Pope. Sicily is once again solely under the Emperor’s control, and the Emperor is advancing on the Papal States.
- The King of Aragon has landed troops to take Majorca from its Muslim rulers.
- In November, Erik Eriksson was defeated in the Battle of Olustra and deposed as king of Sweden by Knut Långe, who proclaims himself new king of Sweden.
- Tie in election for the Venetian Doge; everyone involved agrees to an increase in electors to an odd number next time.
- Flood of the Tiber river. Many Romans believe it is god’s punishment for forcing the Pope to flee.
- Swiss town of Zug founded by House Kyburg.
- Troubador and lyric poet Walther von der Vogelweide has died and been buried in his home of Wurzburg. According to his instructions, birds are to be fed at his tomb daily.
- Construction begun on the new Church of Our Lady in the city of Trier.
- Pope Gregory IX returned to Rome in February.
- Elizabeth of Hungary out-pioused her family, is back in Marburg living a religious life.
- The Duke of Austria, among others, has begun mediating peace talks between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor.
- In March, after a surprise invasion by the Epirans, Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asen II defeats Theodore of Epirus near the village of Klokotnitsa. The Despot of Epirus was captured in this battle, so we don’t really have high hopes for his claim of being the true Byzantine Emperor, especially since the illegitimate son of the first Despot of Epirus has moved in to claim the throne now that Theodore is captured.
- Church of St. Nicholas completed in Berlin.
- Romanesque-style cathedral completed in Lubeck.
- Elizabeth of Hungary donated funds to build a hospital in Marburg, where she is staying.
- Johannes de Sacrobosco at the University of Paris has completed his treatise on astronomy, De Sphaera Mundi
- Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, dies in Italy trying to mediate a dispute between the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Succeeded by his son Frederick II (Duke of Austria, not the Emperor).
- Treaty of San Germano between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope signed in July. Frederick II’s troops withdrawn from the Papal States and church possessions in Sicily returned to the Pope’s control.
- Conrad of Mazovia cedes his territories on the west bank of the Vistula to the Teutonic Knights.
- Walther von der Vogelweide, minnesanger (lyric poet) died recently.
- Count Gottfried III of Sponheim has finished his castle, Kauzenburg, near Bad Kreuznach.
- Siegfried (II) von Eppstein, Archbishop of Mainz, dies in September. His nephew, Siegfried III, succeeds to the Archbishopric. Did he get named Siegfried because his parents guessed that he’d succeed his uncle? I mean, the “III” is from his being the 3rd Siegfried as archbishop, but…
- The Nicholas’s Church has been built across the river from Cölln in what is not yet Berlin.
- In November, King Ferdinand III of Castile has ended his contest against Alfonso IX’s will in return for taking dominion over the Kingdom of Leon.
- Frederick II has granted John, Margrave of Brandenburg, Pomerania as a fief.
- King Ottokar of Bohemia has died.
- the Archbishops of Trier and Mainz are writing letters to the Pope commending Conrad of Marburg for his zeal in extirpating heresy.
- Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II has sent an army, led by Marshal Riccardo Filangeri, to Cyprus to retake it from those loyal to the Lord of Beirut.
- King Henry VII of Germany, having lost the support of many of the German nobles, in May was forced to issue a “Statute in Favor of Princes” supporting them over the Imperial Cities, and weakening the King’s power generally.
- Gregory IX issues the Bull Parens scientiarum, honoring the University of Paris as the “Mother of Sciences”, guaranteeing the school independence from local authority, whether ecclesiastical or secular, placing it directly under papal patronage. This ends the suspension of classes at the University of Paris.
- The crusader city of Acre has been organized as a commune in direct opposition to the claims of the Holy Roman Emperor.
- The Kingdom of Sicily, on behalf of its king (and Holy Roman Emperor) Frederick II, has started minting gold coins.
- Prussian master of the Teutonic Knights Hermann Balk has been conducting guerrilla raids against the pagan Prussians; recently, he crossed the Vistula in a raid that ended up with a Prussian chief hanging from a sacred oak tree.
- Pope Gregory IX has been busy. He’s established a formal Inquisition for heresy, including rules for how torture may be used. He has also reaffirmed the 1220’s excommunication of the Holy Roman Emperor.
- Sept. 15 – Duke of Bavaria murdered on a bridge in Sponheim. The person believed responsible was immediately lynched, so it is unclear whether he was motivated to do so by some other person or entity. Louis’s son, Otto, Count Palatine of the Rhine, is now also Otto II, Duke of Bavaria.
- In September, Frederick II promulgated the Constitutions of Melfi for Sicily, establishing a new legal code and codifying the nature of the government. Also, incidentally, requiring all Sicilian doctors to have practical experience before practicing medicine solo.
- Elizabeth of Hungary, former Landgravine of Thuringia, died in Marbug in November.
- Conrad of Marburg petitions the Pope for Elizabeth of Hungary to be declared a saint.